No part of these articles may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording or by any information, storage, or retrieval system except as may be expressly permitted in writing from the author.  Request for permission should be addressed in writing to Mr. Jaime G. Dianon, Tinago National High School, Inopacan, Leyte, Philippines.


UNIT  I.  Historical and  Cultural Profile of Inopacan

(Volume 1 – 15oo – 1700)

(This article is written in a very plain and simple language yet categorically shows the content in a historical tone having a sole  purpose of bringing up the readers in both people living  inside or outside the Municipality,  to easily know,  grasp, and abreast the understanding  as well as  appreciate  the hidden historical roots and rich cultures 0f Inopacan.)
(January 15, 2011)


Chapter  I


        Circa 16th to 17th centuries are all rough estimate that may approximately concluded with the appearances of both  snake and Inong Pak-an,  whom were known as both protectors, and while the latter was exaggeratedly said as a ” winged man,”  had been retold for hundreds of years, and this story was valued  much and handed down by our great ancestors.

The ferocious historical events had demonstrated those early antagonistic Mohammedan warriors who took a  horrible raids at  different segments of time from 1595 to 1700  to various coastal places in  Leyte, were the history had been logically happened, and sequentially took the events during such time,  is precisely been given by the author with an important weight in the course of  existence and why Inopacan got its name.

Through analysis of the past pages, time and events, a logical presentation of the author is  assumed correspondence with the historic events.  As a matter of facts, the mark of history is credited on the basis of historical chronology, and the sequence of events as premise,  is therefore certain undeniable facts that Moro attacks happened in numerous Christian and pagan villages along the western coasts of Leyte.

In accordance with historical periods of the Malay – Mohammedan raids were noted in the annals of historical culture, and the rich retold stories of our great legendary hero, Inong Pak-an, whom it was presumed to bear the name, and for the ancient of it, it was named Canamocan (1), considering the pattern of the accounts by the the missionary Jesuit writers (2).  And out of this story, a legend or epic  was believed by many Inopacanons in conduit to the historical beginning mentioned in this place may  lie within the two protagonists:  The so-called dragon-sized snake who appeared as monster and defender of Canamocan now Inopacan and with a  man named Inong Pak-an during the raiding of Mohammedan warriors’ .

The dragon-sized snake as handed down by our ancestors was believed as protector of  the early inhabitants of Canamocan  (now-Inopacan) (2) from the furious attacks of Moro warriors.  Vessels used by fanatic Mohammedan Moros cannot land at the bay shore of Canamocan (3) due to vigilant and furious actions of the snake against Moro Muslims from Maguindanao and Jolo (4).   Vessels were turned upside down, sank and destroyed by the snake.   Attacks of the snake spared Canamocan inhabitants from bloody Kampilan and Krises of the Moros.   The Moro raiding expeditions were temporarily stopped, and consequently created a time of peace among the early settlers.

However, with due respect to the end-life of the snake,  or as practically said, the disappearance of the snake in the life of the early inhabitants of Canamocan as shown in some documents was so confusing.  It was told that the snake died in normal death or disappear in Canamocan in one aspect,  and while the other way cited in an opposite manner.  As a matter of fact, the testimony of our ancestors regarding the big snake lived in a cape-form dwelling “Bay Sa Has” in Barangay Tinago for which the name and the elemental substance continues to exist at this present time.

After the disappearance or death of the snake, the attacks of the Moros continued to subjugate and looted valuable properties of the settlers at  Canamocan including human lives for slavery (5).  Yet at this time, a certain man named Inong became another defender of the place against the furious Moro warriors.   Inong was believed by our ancestors who possessed an amulet which made him extra-ordinary from a normal person. This extra-ordinary power made him jump high from one place to another. He also possessed power and great strength to combat against hundreds and thousands of Moro warriors.

According to retold stories of our ancestors, Inong countered attacked Moro warriors through jumping from one boat to another while his men awaiting at the shore and took the attack of those Moros who may reach at their lines (6).   Bravery of Inong led the Moro Muslims to scare and even retreated their fast moving warrior vessels afar from the shores.   With all the strength and power of Inong and his abilities to jump from one place to another  had made him popular as ‘Inong Pak-an.’   This made the name Canamocan to evolve into Binitinan and later on it becomes Inopacan in honor of the ethno-epic hero of the place.  The evolution of the name was a particular story of our ancestors up to the present (7).

All these information written above are producing a common denominators among the thoughts of  the different local writers about the legend and history of Inopacan.   As so far only few evidences and documentary information that correlates the historical life of this place.


1.      Citing the etymology, and the oral tradition whose name Inopacan was truly derived from a person whom many Inopacnons strongly believe that it was taken from a name of a man who held extraordinary power according to folklore, is truly a real story handed down by our ancestors, generation by generation.  On the other side, the story seems unbelievable due to intriguing questions and  skeptical opinions.  Oral transmission of the story nowadays had resorted to many young and adult people to create series of doubts whether the protagonists really existed in the history of Inopacan.   The fact of those questions may even pose so many doubts on the specific dates of their appearances.   As to the dates of existence of Inong and the snake, within the boundary of the oral tradition,  also question that should need to be proven if really both the protagonists really appeared in the past of our history.

As a sort to many arguments confronting with the historical accounts of the protagonists, here are simple argumentative information that needs to be think of, and be substantiated with few glittering  information and evidences that significantly establish against existing belief of the past protectors who were truly contained in a historical facts and evidences for whom the old tradition told us about them.

a.     Spanish Document such as the old manuscript informed Ynopacan as primer barrio of Hindang in 1840.  A suggestion that cites the name ‘Ynopacan’ was used already.  Another proof is that the name appeared in the baptismal archives of Hindang parish known as book 1 dated 1843.  On the other scope, the ‘Y’ letter of the word became ‘I’ in 1901 as reported by the United States of America on the different Spanish towns in the Philippines.  Quoting its value and  information, would it mean that the protectors were really appeared in Inopacan during the late 17th and early 18th centuries?

b.      Considering that it became Ynopacan, Binitinan name was also known as the old historical center (9), and such therefore, the former old name was truly founded in an old Spanish manuscript  at the National Archives including also the baptismal certificate manuscripts of Book 1 in Hindang Parish as well as the existing artifacts of the ruined old Iglesia at Barangay Guadalupe which the modern name of the latter  still remains at this time.   The dilapidated wall of the Iglesia and the Baluarte are the  signs of Hispanic designs that became a visita Guadalupe (10)  in 1885.

c.      The old map of the Church in Binitinan as withhold by the Bishop of Maasin, was showing a connecting  demarcation of boundary within the Diocese of Cebu passing the Church of Poro in Camotes Island and Cebu.   Thus, Binitinan is fundamentally a factual name of the old center of  Inopacan as reflected in the records of Inopacan LGU Spanish manuscripts at the National Archives.

d.      Considering  Inong is really a native Christian, why did the historical accounts of the Jesuit priests and missionaries never mentioned, or even wrote the name Inong as warrior-defender of Christians and the natives or as an  historical person despite his ability which considerably a strong popular taste at about this  certain time or even until in modern times.   This kind of ability cannot be hidden as it connotes heroism as well as a very popular feeling of early inhabitants reckoning the earliest part of 18th  and 19th century’s settlers about the superhero’s abilities.    This heroic act was never before, and never Inong Pak-an appeared  nor showed a slide of details,  information or hints by some written historical works of the Jesuits in Southern part of Leyte and the defense of the natives against Mohammedan warriors.

e.      If Inong was truly pagan,  so he was supposed to be written as one of the historical persons known among pagan people in his contemporaries,  not because he was a warrior,  but because of having extra ordinary power that no man in all historical connotations possessing as such.  The oral transmission cannot set aside not to write this peculiar ability of man.   Aside from it, there were some pagan warriors and believers who also fought against the Friars and the Spaniards yet never mentioned the man named Inong?  Secondly, in the nearby municipalities and its histories, there was no mentioned named of Inong as defender and protector of Ynopacan.  Therefore, it is an inclusive story alone for Inopacan.

f.      If Inong was a compatriot of Bangkao (1620)  as written by the late Celestino ‘Inong Matondo’, former Inopacan District Supervisor, on the accounts based on the history of Inopacan during the time of Mayor Albert T. Lloren, and secondly, as a proof to his writings, the author was able to read the content of the write up through Maam Lilia Bisnar, who was working yet at the Office of the Mayor during the time of the late Dr. Fe E. Muego, former mayor, the question arises as why Bangkao, Tamblot and Sumuroy were those who had been mentioned as warriors in all written facts of Babaylan leaders according to Jesuit missionaries,  while Inong was never mentioned either in an explicit singular information or even implicit scoop despite of an extra ordinary power?   This must be a talk of Canamocan now Inopacan and could be written historically because of its uniqueness, if and only if, historians at that time truly took up and believed the force of the significant events,  evidences and scenarios of the dreaded war and defense of the early inhabitants.

g.      Neighborhood places such Baybay, Hindang, Hilongos, Bato, and Matalom, in its historical accounts never mentioned or give hint about the man or named Inong Pak-an?

h.      Sultans Buisan and Kudarat, both warrior leaders, who led in a brutal raiding expeditions, ‘Mangayaw’ (11) or piratical movement in the western coasts of Leyte including Canamocan (now Inopacan) had no mentioned name about a bold estranged person in Canamocan/Binitinan (Inopacan) even a slight hint or information about him to give benefit of the doubt?

i.      Looking into the caratilla of the Spanish education, it was embodied in their literature scoops about some of the stories on legends and myths of the superheroes of the olden times were the story of the dragon-sized snake and the extra-ordinary power of Inong by our ancestors, are taken similarly by our ancestors or it may assumed as another ethnological scoops of Bantugan, Ibalon and other Filipino epic heroes?  Were the snakes and Inong Pak-an, are they composed for a literary fiction or an ethno-epic stories?

j.      Considering the facts of the oral tradition of the two protectors of Inopacan against the marauding Moros, on the accounts of its historical appearances by two protagonists are specifically projected around 16th to earliest part of the 19th centuries were  the raiding attacks at coastal areas of the Visayas region were so rampant.

Accordingly, the book of the Muslim warriors and other historical books had never mentioned furious serpent dragon-sized snake or animal including the so-called Inong Pak-an of Inopacan, despite the nearby places on the their respective historical backgrounds never showed a minute detail regarding the oral tradition of the stories?

Were all these doubts of Inong and a dragon-sized snake stories may lead to a question: Is it an Epic or A legend?

Here are the glimpses of the truth:

1.     If Inong was born in the early 16th century, Canamocan was already a name before Inopacan. If he was born in 17th century, Binitinan may be out from the picture on the historical accounts of Inopacan. If he was born in the 15th century it is not possible because the recorded data of 1590, Canamocan was already used as a name of Inopacan. If that is 1380 to the 14th century, Islamic religion was on the stage of propagating the faith (12), therefore there is no supposed as Moro attacks for there were no Christians and European invaders appeared at that time.

2.   As to when Inong Appears in the history cannot be substantiated with strong evidence if we consider the recorded data.   It is dangerous to say that Inong as superhero of the old Inopacan is also seemed dangerous to treat him as true man and bold warrior –  for the boldest belief of facts and evidences may tell that Inong never existed historically in the annals of Inopacan.

3.    Was this not an imagination of a prominent person before,  who orally transmitted a story for the sake that Ynopacan may be given a story, simplified from a rampant escalation of ethno-epic stories during at that time of our ancestors?

4.   Another point of view that creates scramble of the story are the cited documents and information on the different write-up during the different stages of time  of the 20th century, and noted accordingly with the following information of the articles:

“1952 EXOR 486 Document” (13)  –  Written by teachers of the different barangays of Inopacan under the Executive Order No. 486 of President Elpidio Quirino and the DepEd General Memorandum No. 34, s. 1952 entrusting to all school officials and teachers the execution of the EXOR 486, to write the Historical and Cultural Life of the Municipalities and Barrios throughout the Philippines.  These extracts of documents were taken and retrieved by Mr. Jaime G. Dianon at the Microfilms of the Historical Data Papers in National Library at Manila.  The aforementioned write-up was based with the informants or prominent persons who had the strong memory to recount, reckon and recall the roots of the history and culture of the people.  The committee on this aforesaid activity were the following: Mrs Rosario D. Espinosa, Mr. Ramon Alonzo and Pedro Compendio (14).  The following informants were former mayor Gualberto Espinosa, Carlos Suarez and Benito Suarez (15).  As cited from this information, the handed down story were cited below:

1.1   Inopacan was a mere village before when the Spaniards came.  It is pre-Spanish settlement that the village existed.  Inong as told lived at this location and became the undisputed defender of the early village.   They called him ‘Inong Pak-an’ because of his amulet that provided him with great strength, power and ability to jump from one hill to another.  No mentioned information on the fighting of Inong against the Mohammedan warriors.

1.2   When the Spaniards came, early village told the visiting Spaniards as Inong Pak-an whom they thought that the former was asking their leader instead of the name of the place.

1.3   Another folktale  was a male and female snake monsters that were too big with wings that had grown up in their bodies.  The settlers were attacked by the snakes.   A volunteered man with amulet (anting-anting) who killed the monsters.  There was emphasis of snake death.  There was no mentioned of snake attacked against Moro raiders for which the author seems to believe that the scoop of the story happens in the late part of the 20th century.  This was also remembered by the author when he interviewed Mr. Nicomedes Jabines of Tahud, the father of my teacher,  Jorge Jabines.  He told me that it was American who helped the settler with anting anting to kill the monsters.

“1981 Tantuico Document” (16 –  as written by Atty Francisco S. Tantuico, Jr. who authored the book: LEYTE TOWNS – Histories and Legends printed in 1980.  The book tells the story of Inopacan as shown below:

1.1     There was a dragon-sized snake that protected the people from the attacks of the Moros.  It attacked the Moro pangkos and war boats that prevented the vessels to land in the shore.

1.2   Inong appeared as legendary hero and another protector of the people.  He had a well-trained band of men who successfully defended the pueblo from the marauding Moros.  Possessed with supernatural powers due to anting-anting.  Jumped from one hill to another hill, and Moro boat to another Moro boat.

“1985 Matondo Document” (17)  –  Written by former District Supervisor, Celestino S. Matondo,  during the time of former municipal mayor, Hon. Alberto Tan Lloren.   He presented the facts of the story and it was written with historical persons:

1.1   There was a dragon sized snake, and no emphasis of death.  Snake attacked the Moro Warriors.

1.2   Inong fought the Mohammedan warriors with the band of ‘Bangkaw’ (11)and ‘Tamblot’, a warrior and Babaylan Leaders who fought against the Spaniards.

1.3   He has a band of warrior men and a compatriot of Bangkaw and Tamblot.

“1998 Compendio Document” (18)  –  Written by former Division Superintendent,   Pedro N. Compedio, during the time of former municipal mayor, Dr. Fe Evangelista Muego,  regarding the presentation of the story.  The facts of the story are cited below:

1.     There was a dragon sized snake, and no emphasis of death.  Snake attacked the Moro warriors.

2.    Inong fought single-handedly without mentioned of the Babaylan Leaders and/or band of men who fought against the Spaniards. It detailed Moro attacks.

“1999 ‘Redaction’ Document” (19)   –  This was also written by the author and corrected by Ricardo Eric Projo with an inclusion of the listing of Municipal Mayors, appropriate date of elections and assumption of Office under the 1935  and 1987 Constitution as published in 1999? Souvenir Program.  The legendary story cited below was based on a conclusive presentation of the aforesaid documents.  This aforementioned write-up was also quoted  in toto by Joriz Chiong in a Millenium Souvenir Program Fiesta 2000.

1.1    There was a dragon sized snake, and no emphasis of death.  Snake attacked the Moro warriors including the settlers.

1.2    Inong fought single-handedly in the boats  while those Moro warriors  who reached the shore were also attacked by the well-prepared men of Inong.

Reviewing the information of the story, it was only the characters that are common but the fact of existence, time and events cannot be distinguished well due to variant information of the informants or persons who had written the story.   And precisely there are already exaggerated statements that arise in writings both on the epic or legend  of the place.  All these things can be a strong ground of impending doubts.


        The answer of these two protagonists and defenders of Inopacan might be an epic story, not even a legend. To cite reasons, there are escalating stories in the Philippines in the 16th and 17th centuries on superheroes such as Bantugan, Ibalon etc. This event might have influence the principle and manner of heroism that was possibly handed down or perhaps borne in an imagination of a prominent person during that time may subsequently relate a fiction story in line of the literary scoops during that time.   Never was it happened in the history of Inopacan – to boldly say. However, it may be possible that the snake is a legend but never to Inong Pak-an. For a simple ground that the connection of the snake of the ‘Bay sa Has’ is one of the elemental grounds that shed light to the story of the snake, but precisely it is not enough to consider. There must be a continual research on some writings of the Jesuits, as well as the conduct of worthy inquiry on matters related to this epic story of the folklore.  All our ancestors place the scene of the event of the heroism of Inong Pak-an in the present location: Inopacan. Nothing, however, could be farther from the truth, because not only was Inong Pak-an a piece of historical existence during Moro attacks, but it was not even appeared in the annals of historical accounts of the western coasts of Leyte.   Maybe, with the deepest scrutiny of the historical accounts, many will not accept this, but from time to time, this will be proven in the future, that our ancestors had committed a blast of real proof. To reject that claim is in no way to belittle Inopacan historical significance, nevertheless, Inopacan by its own right deserves an honorable respect in the south-western Leyte coasts culture and history.

The author only believes that Inopacan might be derived presumably from an evolution of Canamocan ” “Kana Lamokan” or “Impaakan or Inopakan  or Giopakan sa namok” or perhaps snake for Binitinan was derived from the wild snake.   As far I can remember, the late Jose C. Oclinaria, the father of Myrna Oclinaria, former secretary of Poblacion, whom I interviewed at the age of 87,  before his death, told me that there were many ‘lamok’ at this site of Inopacan.   At that time I entered and worked in Inopacan in 1986 up to the present,  I never knew Canamocan until I crossed in January 2011.  It may be seemed sound possible that the derivation of the name Inopacan comes from “Impaakan or Giopakan or Inopakan sa namok,’ as plausible theory, nor it was derived from a person named Inong Pak-an. The former is more linear than speaking Inong as historical man. Namok or lamok might be a derivative evolution of the name of Inopacan.   If ever you can read the history of Leyte Towns, the naming of the places were according to Spanish pronunciation of the conquistadores or friars, or by the ancestors dialect and pronunciations, or the observation of the immediate surroundings  may tell the places. Naming of person as used is too late already nor this was used in naming places during the middle part of the 18th century, for until 1740 so far Canamocan was used, and 1843 as written name of Ynopacan.  To when it was used the latter name  is a missing link of the historical account of the author.


INOPACAN (Ynopacan) (20) is a small municipality located in  southwestern towns under the fifth district of the Province of Leyte. The existing site is formerly called ‘CANAMOCAN’ in 1597 (21) more or less, the oldest name so far known in a written history of the town.  Canamocan evolved from a Visayan word used by the Maguindanao Moro warriors, ‘KALAMOKAN,’ meaning a place of mosquitoes because of the rampant habitation of the insect at this place. This place was also believed a part of the territorial lands of the natives, the ILONGOS (22) in Hilongos under Datu Amahawin in the 12th century. They were cultured native Malay that firstly settled at this place.  According to Lee W. Vance, it was noted that Inopacan was a pre-Spanish settlement (23), and the old name of the former was Canamocan (24).

Three centuries circa before the arrival of Fernao de Magalhaes (25), whom the Spaniards called him Fernando de Magallanes and whom we may know today as Ferdinand Magellanlanded the bay of Humunu Island of Zamal (26)in 1521, there was a certain strong Ilongos chieftain named Amahawin (27) ruled the territorial lands from Canamocan (Ynopacan) up to Matahum (Matalom) (28).

The faith of the early settlers at that time was a pagan-worship, a religion of diwatas and anitos (29) as practiced by our ancestors, and became a foremost belief of the natives that eventually evolved into a so-called ‘babaylan’ (30) cult that practiced sacrificial ceremonies in honoring diwatas in a way of slaughtering animals. They called their god ‘Diwata’ in the Visayas region (31).   Constituting the old practices of the early settlers, Chieftain Amahawin directly involved the people to exercise the acceptance of sharing, an old form of tributary taxes or ‘Pasaka’ from those residents in different territorial lands of Matahum (Matalom) (32), Ilongos (Hilongos), Margen (33) (Bato), Yndang (34) (Hindang) and Canamocan.

Genealogically, the early settlers who lived in a territorial boundary of chieftain Amahawin were known as cultured Malay that constituted the present-day early Visayan inhabitants (35).  Some also believed that they were descendants of chieftain Gara (36), who was one of the unknown tribes that accompanied the ten Bornean Datus of Panay (37), who settled in Tandaya (38) or Carigara and later some of his descendants migrated to one of the prominent places of Leyte, the town of Hilongos.  They were tattoed or painted men that sometimes these natives were called the Pintado settlers.  They were also black men or aetas that mixed with descendants of the Malayan datus. Historically speaking, Pintados was not a culture of Leyte alone, it is a culture and tradition of the Visayan people (39  ) before.


When the time went on, the early Malay settlers in Ilongos grew its population, though in a staggered manner, these early natives were composed of cultured Malay from Panay, Bohol, Leyte, Cebu and other provinces (40). They were some called Atis or Aetas as may be pronounced, the black origin of the Filipino people. They were even recorded by the Pigafetta accounts in the Philippine island named as Humumu (now Homonhon) as he joined the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan (41).

These natives submitted themselves under the rule of chieftain Amahawin (42) with an established local faith and political aspects in their respective tribes. Most of them worked in their respective culture and skills until they strongly established a feudal kinship that was not different from other places and even in the foreign land (43).

The feudal system was also learned from Hindu and Arabic merchants mixed cultures. It must be remembered that these people did not come in waves, but rather in ‘driblets,’ a family of two at a time aboard in wooden boats (44) powered by human arms rowing a crude manner of reaching the coastal areas of Leyte under a territory of Ilongos (45). The early settlers that lived in the coastal areas grew its population as the years went on (46). Thus, Hindang and Inopacan were all part of the growth that mostly of the settlers came from the mixed population of Bohol, and other nearby places (47).   In the middle of 16th century (1550), it was believed that Ynopacan before was already known village – Canamocan that started to sprout the settlers in mixtures of different tribes and families of the provinces in the Visayas and from the southern part of Mindanao. Yet at that time, early settlers practiced the life of paganism like the diwatas and anitos of our ancestors.


In 1381, pagan worship of the natives was threatened by the entrance of a new teaching from a certain Karim Ul’ Hakhdum (48) from Mallaca, the first Arabian Islamic missionary to reach Sulu Archipelago and Jolo that established Islamic Religion in the islands. In 1390, the Minangkabau’s Prince Raiah Baguinda (49) and his followers preached Islam in the islands and spread Koran teaching in central Mindanao. At time passed on, the practice of Raiah or Rajah was now enculturated in the realms of the early settlers.

With the efforts to intensify the preaching of Islam, the Sultanate of Sulu was established in 1450 with Sharif Ul-Hasim Ababakr as first Sultan (50). Sultanate was composed of Sulu Archipelago, Basilan, Borneo , North Borneo and Zamboanga (51). During the reign Sharif Ul-Hasim Ababakr, the Ulama (52), the learned men, also intensified the propagation of Islam in Eastern and Northern Mindanao and visited Malabang and Cotabato (53).   Sharif Auliya also went to Pulangi area where he married a daughter of the local Chief. When he returned to Arabia, he left a daughter of Maguindanao who later married to Sharif Majarajah (54).   From marriage alliance came the strong Muslim communities of Maguindanao, Buaya and Butig.  The Iranus of Butig also introduced Islam to Maranaos of Lake Lanao. The Buayan Sultanate were also responsible in spreading the Islamic faith at the Upper Valley and the nearby coastal areas (55). Now Islam had took hold the Sulu and even reached Mindanao.

It was also noted that the Malay people in Sumatra, Indonesia and other Malaccan (56) natives through marriages and alliances mixed with people living in Mindanao rapidly embraced the Islamic religion that formed a Maguindanao Moro community. At the turn of the century they became a fundamental enemy of the early settlers of Inopacan and other coastal areas of Ceylon (57), Zamal (58), Zubu (59), Bool (60), Negros, Panay and other places of Luzon.

Historical fact on Islamic religion in Mindanao during the early days of the 14th century had fully turned into a Moro village that flourished into a strong and reigning Islamic Sultanate.    For the sake of spreading the Islam, powerful chieftains in Sulu and Maguindanao attacked nearby places and provinces along the coastal areas of Mindanao, Visayas and Luzon regions. Ceylon (Leyte)  and Zamal (Samar)  whom the regions were not exempted from sparing the Kampilans and Krises of the fanatic moro warriors under the command of a Moro Sultan. Among these sultans were Datu Dimasangkay (61), Datu Sirongan (62), Datu Buisan (63), Datu Salikula (64) and Sultan Kudarat (65) from 1595 until to the 18th century.


       When the Islamic faith flourished in Mindanao, Magellan with his men sometime in 1521 landed at Limasawa, erected the first sign of the cross up the hill (66) and held the first mass officiated by Fr. Pedro Valderama and cordially met with  a friendly reception from island villagers headed by Raia Colambu (67),  King of Mazaua, and Si Awi or Si Agu of Butuan (68) with a Malaccan translator in the named of Enrique (68) aboarded the galleon of Magellan in sailing Zubu.  Magellan was brought to a sudden death by way of Kasi-Kasi  encounter (69) with the orang laut (70) chieftain of Bulaia of Matan (71), known as Datu Lapulapu, who was at that time converted in Islam,  made a strong allegiance with  Sultan Kiram.   Datu Lapu Lapu who resisted Magellan and his troops  entry in the island fought against the Spanish troops leaving Magellan lifeless on the ground was the first recorded history of war victory in the Philippines.

Rajah Humabon of Cebu who was baptized as Carlos, the chieftain of Zubu (Cebu), and his wife Amihan (72) as Juana combined with 40 women and 500 followers including all the heads of the villages both from North to South of the province, and took acquaintances with the European soldiers and explorers. By virtue of their Baptism, the Christian gospel cradled to blossom and spread like wildfire throughout the Visayas and in Lucoes (73) regions.

While Christianity and Islam dispersed like wildfire, native people believing the babaylan faith (ancestral animism) or pagan worship broadened also throughout Panay, Zubu, Negros, Bool (Bohol), Zamal (Samar) and Ceylon (Leyte).   The expression of strong beliefs of the natives created a vehement expressions of the early Sri Vishaya to fight against Christianity.  Bangkao (74), a Mazaua warrior in 1621, and Tamblot (75) of Bohol in 1622 and Sumuroy (76), son of babaylan, of Zamal in 1649 were among the few leaders who made an uprising against the Spaniards and Jesuit friars in the Visayas through bloody encounters. All of them were defeated and killed. These events were the early accounts of the vehement uprising of the early natives against any form of depredation of freedom in Leyte.   Meanwhile, the anibong or hudyakaan activity of the early settlers was one of the social cultures in the making as they expressed their common bonding and values at that time as it started to grow its population.


         Circa 1603 – 1604 (77), the Spaniards and religious Jesuit friars arrived in the village of Ilongos better known as the new cultured Malay (78).   With this date, the community were already occupied by the early settlers and listed among the places in Leyte under the jurisdiction of the Missionaries of the Society of Jesus in Carigara, Leyte (79). The place was called by missionaries as Paroquia de la Immaculada Concepcion in 1604 (80). Hinablayan (81) in 1737 and Tagnipa (82) in 1776 were among the parochial Jurisdictions of Ilongos parish before (83).

        As the friars took their mission in evangelizing the native Ilongos the village had already an applied structural form of governance as well as peaceful community in which a certain chieftain Magahong (c.1595 – 1620)(84) who denied the offering of tributes to the King of Spain and his representations (the leader of the Spaniards and the friars) revolted a feeble resistance against the superior arms of the invaders (85). The native forces were in no match of the superior arms of the latter. He incited his people to turn against the Catholic religion and enjoy the freedom they received (86). The uprising of Magahong was unsuccessful and turned the village of the early settlers to be totally razed at the ground (87).

        Corollary with the event, Jesuit friars and missionaries convinced the natives to lay down their might and submit themselves to the King of Spain. Through the influential words of the missionaries, Magahong surrendered after he was convinced with the new religion and accepted the offer to work with the King of Spain as first Gobernadorcillo. His submission led to the Christian Baptism that made him known as Manuel Manicar (88), the first Christian at this pueblo. Manicar made the Ilongos village to flourish into a strong community of people that became a Pueblo de Hilongos in 1737, the mother parish of Ynopacan and Hindang for which the early communities of these places followed to embrace Catholic Christianity.   These events of missionary works of the Jesuits were people in coastal areas of Ceylon had started the faith of Christianity to blossom.  Carigara believed by the many Leytenean historians as cradle of catholic Christianity both north and south of  Ceylon (Leyte), the parish of Hilongos towered paganism and the Islamic faith almost to erased in the Visayas and Luzon regions.


       Based on the historical Spanish books written by Jesuits Missionaries and to whom responsible in writing the  chronicles of the history of Christian evangelization in Leyte, Canamocan was written as one of the places that the missionaries spread the cross of Christianity making Carigara as residence and center of Jesuits’ mission.  Aside from it, Canamucan had been a part of Jesuits  mission in Christianizing the natives (89).

      According to some revealed write up, Canamucan was historically known as now Inopacan.  This is a proof that Inopacan or Canamocan had already a political stature before.  The truth of the matter that Baybay and Canamocan during the olden times had an encomendero named Pedro Navarro (c.1640) from Cebu (90) is a point to consider that it has a factual basis of the history according to Father Horacio de la Costa in his historical write-up taken from Fr. Pedro Chirino (91) manuscripts.

The flow of the written sequence of the evangelization started from Carigara, down to Ormoc and proceeding to Baibai, going to the south of Baibai, the Layog, Canamucan, Binagyohan (possibly Hindang) (92), Hilongos, Sogod, Cabalian etc. (93).

In the Jesuit residence in Carigara during 1609, Canamucan had already 120 tributes from the village who made taxes to the representative or the encomendero of the Governor General of the Philipines (94).  As so far with all the written documents of Canamocan, this author emphasizes above a few information at the site as a connecting history of Inopacan.  Sooner or later,  there will be revelation at this old historical village of Inopacan as an old name of the place.


        Nearly two centuries after the first revolt of the Muslims against the Spanish government, Maguindanao and Sulu Moro warriors revolted not only for freedom cause but the abuses and the threats of the Islamic religion due to widespread acceptance of the early settlers to Catholic Christianity. The decisive action to quash the Spaniards and Christianity were all tactical propaganda used by the warrior leaders to influence the early settlers. Through their fast sailing vessels, the Caracoas and the Joangas (95), raided the Visayas and Northern Palawan (96). They plundered the coastal towns and seized slaves due to inability of the native inhabitants. This raiding expedition and marauding attack of the Muslims is historically called as ‘Mangayaw’ by the Spaniards, equivalent to our term as ‘piracy.’ (97)   Later, October 1602, Katchil Buisan led the expedition in the Visayas in a new territory of Leyte making the early inhabitants defenseless and off-balance (98).  On October 22, 1605, three years after the marauding raid of the Muslim warriors in Maguindanao assaulted again the western coasts of Leyte that raided the villages of Hilongos, Hindang, Inopacan and Baybay (99) that brought many captives, mostly women and the native warriors laid dead at the ground under the command of Datu Buisan. The captives were brought to Borneo and Makassae in the Celebes to be sold as slaves to the Dutch colonizers  (100).

       In 1627 and 1629 Joloanus led by Datu Bungsu had devastated the different places of Camarines, Samar, Bohol and Leyte (101) along the coastal areas including Canamocan.   Because of the efforts shown by Datu Bungsu, Katchil Kulanat made an agreement with the former to raid the coastal areas of Leyte (102).

        At the meantime of their continuous marauding expeditions, historical struggle of the Muslim leadership of Datu Sirongan and Datu Buisan had waged a popular superiority in the Sultanate leadership that eventually catapulted the latter to capture the sentiments of his allies and respective constituents.   Supremacy of Datu Buisan prompted Datu Sirongan to transfer in Butuam(103). Leadership supremacy of  Datu Sirongan made himself an ally to the Spanish conquestadores and finally espoused the Catholic faith (104)

        When Datu Buisan weakened his strength, it is his son, Mohammad Dipatuan Kudarat (105) lauded his father’s men to continue the raids, and looked forward for expansion of Maguindanao Sultanate. The two were both the direct descendants of Shariff Kabungsuan, who had propagated also the Islamic faith in Mamgdanao (Mindanao)(106). Dipatuan is a Malayan word for ‘Master’ and Kudarat as Arabic term for ‘Power’ (107).   No wonder,  he was one of the Muslim leaders who attacked the coastal areas of Leyte, Samar and other places of Lucoes and Mamgdanao (Mindanao) regions.

        On Moro onslaught, the Moro warriors were committed to fulfill the so-called ‘Juramentado'(108)against the Christians, pagans  and Spanish conquistadores. These people were sometimes called by the European citizens as maladjusted, desperate and fanatic warriors, who devoted themselves in murdering  people for they could hardly payoff their obligations.   They swore to kill as many Christians and foreign individuals as possible to make them clean from their crimes and other obligations (109).  The oath became an assets of the Muslim-warrior leaders. The fact of the abuses and eradication of Christian religions were not the real purpose and motive of the Muslim Moros but to make loots, pillage the booty and properties but to gather more slaves for slavery and financial gains (110).

        Another attack also happened on December 3, 1634 when both of them made a joint raid to pillaged the towns of Sogod, Cabalian, Canamocan (now Inopacan), Baibai and Ogmok (111). In the village of Ogmok, Katchil Kulanat also suffered casualties due to fifty brave christian warriors that fought against the Moros (112). The Ogmokanon warriors were defeated due to thousands of Moros at that time attacking the village of Ogmoc (113)that destroyed the village and the church. Again in November 4, 1663, the Maguindanao Moros under a furious leader, Sultan Kudarat whom captured human lives and mercilessly slaughtered handful of men who defended the towns of Ilongos to Baibai in the western coastal areas of Ceylon through courageous aids of the parish priests (114).    Accordingly, Katchil Kulanat is historically famous in Muslim community in the Philippines as the true freedom fighter.


        After Legaspi, many missionaries entered with courage on the unknown world like Philippines and made a bold step in propagating the Cross of Christ,  in which the faith expanded throughout Luzon, Visayas and some places in Mindanao (115) like Butuam and Zamboanga.  Christianity in Leyte spread out also in southern western coasts such as Maasin, Cabalian, Sogog and Hilongos.   Spearheaded by missionaries in Hilongos, the Church towered down paganism and Islam that almost eradicated the latter except some places of Mindanao like Zamboanga, Cotabato, Lanao, Maguindanao and Sulu.    However, the towering  of Christian faith had been started first among Augustinian missionaries, and it was not the Jesuits’ mission whom really responsible in the promotion of Christian religion. Augustinian missionaries made light of the Christendom in the Philippines from 1580 to 1595 (116).  At this year the Augustinian mission was recalled by Holy Father Clement VIII, Pope of Rome (117), Jesuit priests took over the seeds of the former. This is the beginning of the Leyte Christendom.

       Though the early Church in Leyte towered down the strength of paganism and Islam as almost eradicated, some practices of paganism and vibrant faithful of Islam are also still observed at this time.    According to history of the Jesuit Missionaries, the mission priests arrived at Tandaya or Carigara, Leyte on July 16, 1595 (118). They settled an official residence at this place to light the candle for Cross of Christianity in Leyte (formerly Ceylon) (119). Though they knew the danger ahead in their works, the missionary Jesuits offered their lives despite of dangerous threats and attacks (120) of marauding Mohammedan Moro warriors.   While their mission was a true mark of vocation among missionaries, all threats of it  were not made obstacle in propagating the teaching of the Catholic faith (121). Their bloodshed (Missionaries and early Christians became the seeds of Christianity in Leyte.

        As time went on, the missionary priests labored much for the growth of the members of the Catholic faith. All efforts were born fruitful when mission was also propagated in the early settlement of Hilongos (122).    Spearheaded by missionaries in Carigara and Hilongos, the Church soared up Christianity.  Factual proof is the historical Spanish manuscript of the Obizpado de Cebu (123) reveals Ynopacan was once a prominent sitio of Hindang (124) under the mother parish of Hilongos.  Bato was once a part of Matalom, and Ynopacan was then a sitio/visita of Hindang were all under the Paroquia de la Immaculada Concepcion of Hilongos.   The missionaries also trailed the faith in Hinablayan, Ormoc and Tagnipa. Carigara became also the primary center of the Jesuit friars (125). This turns the parish of Hilongos as Ormoc and Palompon visita.

*Parochial Decree of Hindang

(Jaime G. Dianon translated the true photocopy of the official Spanish decree of the Obizpado de Cebu, Bishop Romualdo Jimeno Ballesteros published in 1971 town founding centennial celebration


(Manuscript above is a Spanish document of the Bishop of Cebu dated Mach 11, 1861)

“With this date, resulting from the decree effecting the formation on it is timely and necessary for the new parish of the town of Hindang including Ynopacan to segregate from its mother Hilongos, Province of Leyte, so as to achieve better governance and administration of the spiritual nature, as well as for the convenience of the Vice Royal Master of these Islands, and in accordance with the presentation of this superior decree dated September 17, 1860, certainly come to declare: the declaration of separation and independence on spiritual state of Hindang town including Ynopacan to its mother Hilongos by providing a parish with a chosen priest arranged in accordance with the sacred canons and laws of the Vice Royal; the marking of parochial limits of the designated adjoining territories, and the creation of civil royal justice with including citation of adjacent towns.

Communicate this decree to the devout parish priest of Hilongos and to the first newly installed parish priest to resolutely dedicate their efforts to the new parish of Hindang in obtaining maximum fulfillment of both parishes;  to whom this decree shall be in the archives upon this date to respective parishes, and impart this communication to both concerns so as to uphold the finality indicated above.  God Bless from Your Eminence.  

The decree is done in Cebu on March 11, 1861.”


Historical Monument of Hilongos

*(This is a historical records written in Filipino at the monumental slab of Hilongos by the Philippine Historical Institute, 1994)

This is the new facade of the church building of the Hilongos Parish

Simbahan ng Hilongos

         “Dating Bisita ng Ormoc. Sinimulan ng mga misyonerong heswita ang ebanghilisasyon sa pook na ito. 1603 naging parokya ang Immaculada Concepcion bago dumating ang taong 1737. Ipinatayo ng mga paring heswita ang unang simbahan yari sa bato at naging sentro ng kanilang mga gawain. Kalagitnaang ng ika-18 daantaon muling ipinatayo ang simbahan. Ika-19 na daantaon ipinagawa ang kampanaryo ni P. Leonardo Celis Diaz, isang sekular, ika-19 ng daantaon. Nasunog ang simbahan noong digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano. Muling ipinatayo ng mga taga-parokya, 1968.” (127)

Through various efforts of the missionaries, Christianity dramatically augmented as the evangelization of the early inhabitants of Hilongos  (This includes the boundary lands of Matalom, Hindang and Ynopacan) were embracing the catholic teaching.   Through representatives of the Holy See in Rome, the  zeal of the early Jesuit missionaries manifested itself in the many conversions that took place in Hilongos, Matalom, and Hindang including Inopacan (128).

In 1597, the community population was almost baptized as Christians. Aside from the efforts of baptizingzing the people, they were all things to all Ilonggos, and other nearby communities: missionaries, musicians, artists, architects, engineers, agriculturists and teachers. Since Hilongos was first the visita in the south of the Jesuit Missionaries (129) in Carigara, all arrivals of missionaries were also trained and taught in learning the local dialect and customs of their mission area in Hilongos. This does not separate the Matalom, and Hindang (130).   The Jesuits in Hilongos were also known in plants and animals propagation arriving at from Europe (131).   As a matter of fact, cacao seeds and plants in Hilongos are significantly visible at this time were distributed and propagated in Hindang and Matalom by followers of the Jesuits (132) long ago. The fact of this story is the visible cacao plants in other communities of Hilongos that were given the propagation technology by the Jesuits (133).

This is the old image of the parish church of Hilongos.

Looking into the Archives de Indies at Seville, Spain, there are records that show Fr. Melchor de Veyra (134) who was credited as being the architect and engineer of numerous watch-towers that dotted the coasts of the Visayas. It was believed that the watch-tower of Hilongos was architected by the priest.  Jesuit Missionaries in Hilongos were also considered agents of civilization for while they labored in preaching Christian religion, they also taught the early settlers in improving their lives. (135).    When the mission expanded, the missionaries were determined defenders of the natives, and in addition to, the precious gift of faith that they brought with the early natives was an inestimable treasures of culture and art, the effect of which are still alive among our people (136). The missionaries left their own country and gave all their life to sow the new life of faith, hope and love (137).  As per record of the history, it was believed that the place of Canamocan (now Inopacan) was part of the evangelization efforts of the Jesuits. The book of the historian Fr. Horacio de la Costa (138) attributed the efforts of Frs. Rodriguez and Celsi in developing a ‘ratio studiorum’ for a simple catechetical classes.   Under the whole catechism, the discipline was divided into easy to difficult courses.    Courses had to be mastered before another course be taken up.   Lessons were written in bamboo and brought at home to memorize important details.   Catechism made the conversion to spread fast.

Rodriguez accounted 584 pagans converted to Christianity  in Ogmuc alone  from May 1597 to April 1598. From that place the missionaries sailed forth and planted a Chistian Cross in several settlements.   One of it was the Poro Island, facing across the Ogmoc Bay, Fr. Rodriguez spread the Christian gospel, constructed sturdy church and baptized 194 natives.   Due to lack of catechists the growth was so slow, yet the bayanihan spirit to build a sturdy church was willfully and successfully done (139).     Farther to the south along western coast in Baybay, the Jesuits met with initial resistances, yet never last long. By 1597, Rodriguez was counting 203 Christians in Baibai (140). The missionaries never ceased to proceed in Baibai where the natives and descendants of Raia Malegis was (141 ) among the settlements that were evangelized.  These were those of Layog (142), a village south of Baibai, Canamocan (now Inopacan), Binagyohan (143), Hilongos, Sogod, Cabalian, Panaon and Limasawa.   Hilongos was cited as most strategic location in the south  in 1745 the place became the Jesuits’ third mission residence in Leyte after Carigara and Dulag, directed all mission stations in western part of the island.

When the parish of Hilongos became one of the Jesuits residences, it continued to pursue the evangelization efforts of the missionaries.   By this manner, the old name of Hindang as probably “Binagyohan” and Canamocan had always been prominently known since 1600 (144), and after the expulsion of the Jesuit Missionaries in Leyte in 1768 (145), the Augustinian friars returned back to pursue again the mission in the territorial southwestern lands of Leyte that expanded catholic christian evangelization in other places like Palompon (Hinablayan) and Maasin (Tagnipa) including the western and southern part of Leyte. All efforts produced positive fruits as they worked to civilize the culture of the natives in putting change with their values and ethnic customs as well as the doctrines of Christianity in their respective families and lineages.

At this time, it was uncertain as to when the place and name Canamocan ended.  As  per records, the book of Baptismal Certificates archives of Hindang Parish,  Ynopacan (146) was already used as address by the settlers. The fact of the place had already been a flourishing cultured people and made the community into a popular sitio known as Binitinan, popularly called the ‘Daang Lungsod’ (147) during that time before Ynopacan was usably appearing as a barrio of Hindang in 1843.  The used of Binitinan dramatically lessened its novelty when settlers usually Ynopacan as  address in 1843.   The name slowly became minimal in addressing residency (148).    It was in 1843 baptismal certificates archives so far as documents showing the name Ynopacan that started appearing in Book as recorded in the Book 1 of Hindang Parish  Baptismal Certificates (149).   Binitinan in 1885 was already called Visita Gudalupe*, a prominent barrio of Ynopacan (150) in accordance with the documents of a Spanish manuscript.


    1. Canamocan was a mentioned place written by early Jesuit historians and analytically understood by the author through other manuscripts and facts presented by some current writers.
    2. Canamocan is an excerpt of the paragraphs of Fr. Pedro Chirino, the head of the early Jesuit Mission in Leyte, quoted in the historical write up of Fr. Horacio de la Costa. This was also confirmed in the written history of Baybay, Ormoc and Carigara. Francisco Colins, Labor Evangelica; Frs. Pedro Chirino and Horacio de la Costa..
    3. ibid.
    4. Jose Montero Y Vidal, Historia de la Perateria (Madrid: Imprenta y fundicion de Manuel Tello, 1888) p. 11
    5. Horacio de la Costa, p.94 quoting the Carta Pastoral of Archbishop Martinez de Arizada stated that the 3 decades of that century  (1600) no less than 20, 000 captives were in the western coast of Leyte and/or from the Spanish-held territory; p. 289; Majul p. 134; Quirino, 47
    6. Matondo, Compendio, and Dianon Documents.
    7. Tantuico, Jr. 1981, History of Inopacan
    8. Fr. Leonardo Celis Diaz, parish priest of Hilongos with satellite parish Matalom and Hindang.
    9. Compendio Document in 1994 Fiesta Souvenir Program.
    10. Visita Guadalupe appears so far in the Spanish Manuscripts in the listing of Gobernadorcillos (mayors) of the Leyte Towns under Inopacan.
    11. Filway’s Philippine Almanac 2nd Edition (Manila: Filway Marketing, Inc., 1994) p. 15.
    12. ibid, 505.
    13. Executive Order No. 486 of President Elpidio Quirino.
    14. DepEd General Memorandum No.34  s. 1952.
    15. Informants of Inopacan History and Cultural Life.
    16. Atty. Francisco Tantuico, Jr. Leyte Towns: Histories and Legends, 1981.
    17. Celestino S. Matondo, Retired District Supervisor wrote in 1985 the legend of Inopacan for Fiesta Souvenir Program
    18. Pedro N. Compendio, retired DepEd superintendent, wrote also Inopacan Socio-Economic Profile in 1994 Town Fiesta Souvenir Program. 
    19. Jaime G. Dianon with Eric Ricardo Projo also wrote the legend of Inopacan in 1996 Town Fiesta Souvenir Program.
    20. Ynoopacan, a Spanish spelling of Inopacan
    21. Canamocan was never known before that the latter was the old name of Inopacan until such time Dianon was able to read the Jesuit Missionaries write up dated 1590s and 1600s centuries historical happening.
    22. Ilongos was the native cultured Malay settlers in Hilongos as cited in the History of Hilongos of the Tantuico Document on Leyte Towns: Histories and Legends. 
    23. Lee W. Vance, Tracing Your Philippine Ancestors: Volume II (Stevenson’s Geological Center  (Utah, USA, 1980)
    24. Horacio de la Costa, p.
    25. Fernao de Magalhaes was a Portuguese nam of Ferdinand Magellan as cited in the book of Carlos Quirino: Filipinos At War, p.19.
    26. Humunu of Zamal was the old name of Homonhon of Samar as written by Pigafetta.
    27. Amahawin was a chieftain in Hilongos in the 12th century that ruled the territorial lands of Inopacan and Matalom.
    28. Matahom was the old name of Matalom, and it was called by the Spaniards, Hermosa.
    29. Babaylan was a pagan cult that believes on Diwatas and Anitos.
    30.  Names in parenthesis were the old names of the municipalities as cited in Tantuico’s Leyte Towns:  Legends and 
    31. The god of the early inhabitants of the Visayan region.
    32. Atty Francisco Tantuico, Jr. in his book histories and legends of Leyte Towns. 
    33. ibid, p. History of Bato.
    34. ibid. p. History of Hindang.
    35. Sri Vishaya inhabitants who settled in the western coasts of Leyte (Ceylon in Pegafetta’s Chronicle or Selani in Albo’s Chronicle).
    36.  Gara clan was one of the Tribes that joined the Ten Bornean Datus who escape from the rule a cruel leader of Borneo.
    37. Ten Bornean Datus of Panay under the leadership of Datu Puti who met with the leader of the aetas in Panay; H. Otley Beyer.  Theory of the Malay in the Visayas cited in the Book of Michael Rama et. al.
    38. Tandaya was believed among historians in Leyte as Carigara being the cradle of Christianity.
    39. Pintados was a culture among the early Visayan inhabitants.
    40. Among the Visayan inhabitants that settled in Leyte.
    41. Fr. Miguel A. Bernad, S.J., The Site of the First Mass in the Philippines, p.25.
    42. Chieftain Amahawin rule Matalom to 
    43. Feudal kinship were among the practice as form of government of the early inhabitants in Leyte related to other places and foreign land.   This may be due to mixed culture that traded in the Philippines.
    44. Carlos Quirino.  Filipinos At War (Philippines: Vera-Reyes, Inc., 1981)  p. 7.
    45. Ilongos were the early settler of Hilongos that became the latter as center of emigrants among other places of the Visayas 
    46. Tantuico, Jr.: Leyte Towns on History of 
    47. Places that commonly called as sources of the early settlers that lived with the natives in Hilongos, Hindang and Inopacan.
    48. The first Islamic missionary that preached the teaching of Mohammad.
    49. Internet: History of Cebu.
    50. Filway’s Philippine Almanac 2nd Edition (Philippines: Filway Marketing, Inc. 1991) p. 505
    51. ibid.
    52. loc.cit.
    53. ibid.
    54. op. cit.
    55. pArmando Cortesano, Oriental of Tome Pires,” London, 1994, 7, 23
    56. Mallaca is also known as the northern Malay Peninsula.
    57. Fr. Miguel A. Bernad, S.J. The Site of the First Mass in the Philippines, p. 22.  Ceylon is Leyte.
    58. ibid., Zamal is Samar
    59. op. cit. Zubu is Cebu
    60. loc. cit. Bool is Bohol.
    61. Carlos Quirino, p.40
    62. ibid. 
    63. ibid., p. 41.
    64. loc. cit.
    65. ibid.
    66. Fr. Miguel A. Bernad S.J., p.39
    67. ibid.
    68. ibid.
    69. Kasi-kasi is a hand-to-hand combat with spears, swords, and shields of the natives against the soldiers of Ferdinand Magellan.
    70. Orang lauts as history tells are called men of the high seas, but not skillful fishermen, however, they are known as brave warriors.
    71. Bulaia of Matan (now Mactan) is the historical place popularly known as the Battle of Mactan.
    72. Amihan was the name of the wife of King Humabon before she was baptized; Wall Gallery in Sugbu Museum.
    73. Lucoes is familiar today as Luzon.  Before it was Luzones due to pronouncement of the Spaniards. C is pronounced as Z and O is always followed with N that makes the word to be pronounced as Luzones.
    74. Bangkao was a leader in Limasawa and Carigara in 1621 who fought and against the Spaniards and beheaded.
    75. Tamblot, a leader in Bohol who also fought against the Spaniards. The same fate happened to him when he was killed.
    76. Sumoroy of Samar (1649), son of a babaylan leader was also killed by the Spaniards.  The same fate of death happened to him.
    77. MOnumental slab of Hilongos Church by the National Historical Institute.
    78. Cultured Malay were known as tattoed or painted men who had knowledge and skills in Agriculture and settled as early inhabitants of Hilongos  that later evolved as Ilongos. 
    79. Missionaries of the Society of Jesus or sometimes called as Jesuits.
    80. Hilongos became a parish called as Paroquia de la Immaculada Concepcion according to National Historical Institute.
    81. Hinablayan, old name of Palompon. Tantuico’s Leyte Towns.
    82. ibid. Tagnipa, old name of Maasin.
    83. Hilongos was known as one of the first residence of the Jesuit Missionaries in the southern part of Leyte.
    84. Tantuico, Jr., Leyte Towns: History of Hilongos.
    85. ibid.
    86. ibid.
    87. ibid.
    88. ibid.
    89. Horacio de la Costa and Fr. Pedro Chirino Historical Accounts of the Jesuit Missionaries in Leyte.
    90. Emma H. Blair and James Alexander Robertson. The Philippine Islands 1493 – 1898 Volume XI (1594 – 1602) p. 292
    91. Horacio de la Costa and Fr. Pedro Chirino Historical Accounts of the Jesuit Missionaries in Leyte. 
    92. Possibly Binagyohan as written by Fr. Pedro Chirino might be the old name of Hindang.
    93. ibid.
    94. Emma H. Blair et. al.  Volume 
    95. Carlos Quirino, p. 43
    96. ibid.
    97.  Filway’s Philippine Almanac 2nd Edition (Philippine: Filway Marketing, Inc. 198) p.
    98.  Carlos Quirino, p.44
    99. Francisco S. Tantuico, Jr. on Histories of Hilongos, Hindang, Inopacan and Baybay.
    100. Carlos Quirino, p. 44 
    101. Ibid, 45 – 47
    102. Katchil was a Moluccan word of Sultan.
    103.  Butuam was an old sound name of Butuan.  The former name was written in the Spanish chronicles and voyage map of Pigafetta showing the islands of Leyte, Samar and Mindanao.
    104. Filway’s Philippine Almanac 2nd Edition (Philippine: Filway Marketing, Inc. 198) p. 511.
    105. ibid., p. 509.
    106. Mamgdanao name written by Pigafetta in his drawn voyage map showing the islands of Leyte, Samar and Mindanao.
    107. *ibid., p. 75.
    108. Oath of the Muslim warrior to kill non-Muslim believers and European foreign citizens.
    109. *ibid., p. 83.
    110. *ibid., p. 76.
    111. 207th Fiesta Souvenir Program of Palompon dated December 3, 1991.
    112. op. cit.
    113. Jose Montero Y Vidal, Historia de la Perateria (Madrid: Imprenta y fundicion de Manuel Tello, 1888) p. 11.
    114. Tantuico., Jr., History of Baybay (Baibai).
    115. Miguel Lopez de Legaspi was the first governor general and Vice Royal Master of the Philippine Islands (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) 
    116. Excerpts of the History of Christianity in the Philippines as written by Fr. Pedro Chirino.  1580 – 1595, the Augustinian Missionaries spread Christianity among the villages in Leyte.
    117. The Holy Father who made the bull to recall the Augustinian Missionaries to return back to Europe and gave in the missions to the Jesuit Friars.
    118. July 16, 1595 was the date of the arrival of Jesuit Missionaries in Carigara as cited in the sources of Jesuit Missionaries in Leyte; Tandaya was the old prominent name of the place of Christian missionaries as written in the Spanish Manuscripts that later known as Carigara to some historians; Eduardo T. Makabenta, History of Carigara.
    119. Leyte was known in the Pigafetta account as Ceylon while on Albo’s account, it was called Selani.  Both are the Chroniclers of Ferdinand Magellan in his Voyage to the World; Fr. Miguel A. Bernad, S.J., The Site of the First Mass in the Philippines on Articles written by Pigafetta and Albo.
    120. Cited in the History of Carigara. 
    121. ibid.
    122. ibid.
    123. Spanish Manuscript of the Bishopric of Cebu declaring Hindang as new parish that separates her mother Hilongos.  The manuscript was translated by Mr. Jaime G. Dianon.
    124. ibid.
    125. Eduardo T. Makabenta, History of Carigara
    126. Complete name of the Bishop of Cebu; cited in the list of Bishops of the Archdiocese of Cebu.
    127. This is a historical monumental slab of Hilongos in front of the Church written in Filipino by the Philippines Historical Institute, 1994.
    128. Histories of the Municipality in the Book of Tantuico.
    129. Tantuico, jr., Hisotory of Hilongos.
    130. ibid.
    131. Makabenta, History of Carigara.
    132. ibid.
    133. ibid.
    134. Fr. Melchor de Veyra was believed as the architect of the church bellfry in the coastal areas of Leyte and other part of the visayas. The architectural design of the Church belfry in Hilongos was credited to him.  Cited also in the history of Carigara.
    135. *History of the Jesuit Missionaries in Carigara.
    136. ibid.
    137. Message of Bishop Bactol during the Fourth Centennial celebration of Christianity in Leyte and Samar.
    138. Horacio de la Costa citing Fr. Pedro Chirino write-up.
    139. ibid.
    140. ibid
    141. ibid
    142. ibid.
    143. Binagyohan possibly believed by the author as the old name of Hindang.
    144. Canamocan and Binagyohan as written by the Jesuit Missionaries were both old names of the aforementioned adjacent western coastal towns as written and recorded.
    145. Year that the Jesuit were also given an order to return back to Europe.
    146. Ynopacan as recorded in the Baptismal archives in 1843.
    147.  “Binitinan” known as the old center of Ynopacan before 1800 and in 1843 Ynopacan started its prominency.
    148. Binitinan slowly loosing its prominency in terms of the settlers address.
    149. The remaining evidence of the Baptismal Archives of the 18th century inhabitants of Inopacan.
    150. Visita Guadalupe appears in the list of Gobernadorcillos in Leyte as publish in the ” La Isla de Leite”